Maybe Adelina could try 3A, on Russian Olympic broadcast they compared elements of different skaters (jumps for singles, throws and twists for pairs) and measured height and distance. They compared Mao's 3A and Adelina's 2A, Adelina's jump was higher, so it seems she has an ability to at least try. But I'm not sure if she needs that, IMO, first she needs to work on her 3F-3T to put it in programs (it looked good at Olympic practices), but if she ever wants to try something like 3A or quad - next season is the best time to do it. She has a reputation and PCS advantage over someone like Radionova or Pogorilaya to still make the team even if she isn't always clean and other youngsters are still in juniors. Maybe Liza if she gets herself together could try 3A (and she needs it more than Adelina), but I'm not sure about her. My bet is on someone like Gubanova, she is very young, but her jumps are huge and technically correct, or Tsurskaya, they will need difficulty when they are eligible to make the team, because competition in Russia is only going to get harder.
As for Americans, Gold has an ability, but I don't think it will happen under Carroll. Mirai - no, I don't believe she could land and get it ratified, she has trouble to even rotate her triples. As for Japanese, I'm not sure about younger ones like Honda, but older girls have a lot of technical issues and flawed technique. Even Mao mostly needed her 3A to cover her lack of consistent 3-3 and her UR issues (and still she lost to Yuna who didn't even have 3Lo, let alone 3A, but had a consistent 3Lz-3T and other jumps)
Sotnikova's (toe) jumps are high but she doesn't have fast rotation. That's why she often receives UR calls. Maybe that could be overlooked in Russia but not everywhere. Doubtful about her 3A, let alone the quad. She has some advantages in reputation to allow her a few mistakes, though. Anyway I hope she tries more difficult jumps than the 3Lz-3T, which can be done by a 11 y/o novice girl these days. I don't think Sotnikova is seriously aiming for the next Olympics. She may need motivations other than medals.
Tuktamysheva -- she doesn't have much to lose now. At least, she can try not worrying too much about results. But if she can't improve her SP consistency, even landing a lucky 3A won't be enough to go anywhere higher than GPS.
Lip and Radionova -- They will be able to make european/world teams as long as they skate reasonably clean. So they don't have strong motivation to make technical challenges. Also their 2A are small and rather ugly.
Granted, Mao's own 2A later in the program was also 14/25 = 0.56 seconds, so it's certainly possible that if Adelina puts a 3A (or 2A) at the beginning of her program it will have similar height as Mao's 3A, seeing as how their 2A's in the middle of the program had pretty much the same height (Yuna's and Carolina's were smaller). But that's significantly different than saying that Adelina's 2A in the middle of her program was higher than Mao's 3A at the top of hers.
Yes I've read that a 3A is not necessarily higher than a 2A (the additional revolution comes from getting into the rotation position earlier as well as having a tighter position -- Mao's rotation speed in her 3A is slightly faster than Yulia's in her 3Lz IIRC), but it seems like for the ladies so far this holds up; Mao's 3A is simply higher than any other jump in the Olympics that I've measured so far.